Last year, the United States spent roughly $40 billion on its space program, which is more than every other country combined, according to a new study (pdf) by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). For comparison, China’s space budget, which is the second largest in the world, was just under $11 billion in 2013; Russia’s the third largest, was roughly $8.6 billion; and India’s, the fourth largest, was about $4.3 billion.
NASA’s budget is about $18 billion. So less than half of the US space budget goes to them. The rest, while it includes NOAA and such, is mostly from the military budget.